The Wonhwa Do view of education is closely related to the nature of the DO which we discussed in the previous chapter. Through that discussion, it should be apparent that the nature of the DO is largely educational in character. In other words, the arts are actually a medium for instruction rather than ends in themselves.

1. Traditional Education
A. Education and the "DO"
The goal of instruction in traditional DO is two-dimensional: On one hand, the student learns to perfect the skills of his chosen craft. But at a deeper level, he is being guided by the master towards the perfection of his own human nature. This kind of approach to education is rooted in the views of traditional Oriental philosophy. We are referring of course to the "root" teachings of Asia: Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.
It is of value to try to understand these views, for they still determine the experience of today's martial arts student whenever he enters a traditional training hall. This is because a traditional master is guided by the views which the past masters have transmitted down to the present day. The accompanying diagram will help us summarize the main views.
Confucius felt that "Heaven" contained the standard for earth and that it was governed by heavenly law. This law could be learned through study of the "Six Classics". And through this study, one could eventually become the ideal man of virtue. Thus, Confucius placed a strong stress upon good education as the key to a good society. Mencius, the great disciple of Confucius agreed:

"…good government does not hold people so firmly as good education. For good government produces only awe in the people's minds, while good education inspires love. Good government gains the people's wealth, while good education gains their hearts."

On the other other hand, Lao Tzu held that Nature embodies the standard for behaviour and that it is governed by "Tao". As we have seen, the Tao could be discerned through the observation of nature, and through this, man could achieve "normality", meaning a state of natural innocence. Thus, Taoism stresses an education based upon naturalism rather than scholarship. Lao Tzu indicated his ideal by referring to past sages who "…attuning themselves with the Tao, possessed a subtle and penetrating wisdom ... but they were submissive and humble like melting ice ..."
Cha'an (zen) Buddhism regards the Buddha as the standard of perfection. The path towards Buddhahood prescribes a life of meditation, self-discipline and purifcation through which the disciple can achieve "enlightenment". This refers to a state of "oneness" with the universe.

Study Classics
Superior Man
Discern Tao


Due to the somewhat mystical nature of this goal, Ch'an education is characterized by methods of total immersion which promote self-effacement. Also, because neither scholarship nor nature can instruct the disciple, Cha'an education requires total submission of the student to the guidance of his master. Conversely, due to the seriousness of this commitment, the master is required to guide and educate his disciples with absolute devotion. This is the reason why the Shaolin monks were so rigid in screening aspiring kempo students.
Though our review of these educational philosophies is brief, their influence upon martial arts education should by now be evident. The emphasis on virtue, the way of nature, oneness with the universe, obedience, discipline, all of these things and more are part of the character of education in traditional DO.

B. Two approaches to Education
There is another initial observation to be made. That is that, in these views, the methods of instruction are shaped by the concept of "ideal" man. This is logical, and so some Western philosophers have also proposed approaches towards the education of their "ideals" of man. (A few of the most well-known philosophers who have discussed views of education are Plato, Kant and Dewey.) However, the manner of approach differs: the Asian master relies more heavily upon an "intuitional" and "experiential" approach, whereas the western professor relies more heavily upon a "verbal" and "rational" approach. One needs only to compare the difference between the behaviour of a Taoist or Zen master with that of a western scholar to note this tendency.
A main influence in shaping today's concepts of education is the philosophy of John Dewey. His views are rooted in turn-of-the-century "pragmatism" and "instrumentalism". According to this view, education relies on growth through experience. As one grows, one applies "instruments" such as truth and logic to reorganize, reconstruct and retransform constantly. This view stresses the intellect as the agent for the continual change of individuals and society. However, Dewey felt that instrumentalism was limited to the frontier age, and once that age ended, a confusion in values was inevitable. That is exactly what has come to pass in society today.
Presently, there is a dilemma in education. There is a necessity to balance the scientific and the spiritual approaches with one another. For this is an age of increasing dominion over the physical world and also of increasing concern for the things of the spirit. Through the Wonhwa Do view of education, it is possible to understand and systematically address both areas. This opens up important vistas for the educational system of the future.

- "Instrumentalism"



C. Two Aspects of Educational Theory
Before we begin explaining the Wonhwa Do view of education, it is first necessary to identify two aspects of educational theory. The first aspect is the "philosophy" of education which deals with its basic principle. This refers to the ideals, direction, purpose and essence of education. The second aspect is the "science" of education which deals with objective daily facts such as curriculum, class organization, administration, etc. The Wonhwa Do view addresses the basic principle of education, for this is what is most needed in today's system. As Dewey foresaw, there is a confusion in values. There is no real consensus on the essence, purpose and ideals of education, and therefore, no clear direction can be set for educators. If this is neglected, then schools will continue to produce people who are adept in their field of study, but inept in their ability to achieve harmony within themselves or with others. A concrete example of such an incomplete education would be a black belt holder who has perfected his defence techniques, but has been allowed to neglect the development of his character. Such a person would not only be unfulfilled, he would also be dangerous.

II. Wonhwa Do Education
A major purpose of Wonhwa Do is to help each participant achieve the original human nature endowed to him by the Origin. Since this original nature is the human embodiment of the Principle of Harmony, Wonhwa Do education can also be called an "education of harmony".
To explain the essence, ideals and direction of such an education, we will discuss four sections on the "standards" of harmony, the "types" of education, the "Ideal Image" of man and the "goal" of education.

A. The Standards of Harmony
The three standards of harmony were previously mentioned in the third chapter entitled "The Wonhwa Do View of Man." They are: "Individual Harmony", "Conjugal Harmony" and "Universal Harmony". These three standards are essential because they encapsulate the fulfilment of original human nature. Therefore, since the primary concern of Wonhwa Do is the fulfilment of this original nature, these three standards provide both the root foundation and the specific direction of its educational theory.

1. Individual Harmony
Individual harmony refers to the unity of mind and body based upon Shimjung (Original heart). The mental attitude of such a person would reflect "object-consciousness". In that case, his behaviour would then be the embodiment of the "moral norms" through which which object-consciousness is expressed.

C.Two Aspects of Theory

1. Philosophy

2. Science









As we had mentioned in Wonhwa Do ethics, some of the virtues expressive of this are purity, honesty, righteousness, temperance, courage, wisdom, self-control, endurance, self-reliance, self-help, independence, dignity, diligence, innocence and integrity. These would result in maintaining an inner harmony which would allow the Origin and the individual to experience oneness together.

2. Conjugal Harmony
Conjugal harmony refers to the unity of husband and wife based upon Shimjung. It encompasses all kinds of harmony between peers such as friend-friend relationships and brother-sister relationships because it represents the most intimate of all "horizontal" loves.
A husband and wife who achieve conjugal harmony would be fully aware of their positions as the object of the Origin's Shimjung, and the subject (of Shimjung) over others, especially their children. Then, as Wonhwa Do ethics explains, such a family would be the embodiment of "ethical norms." As husband and wife, they would express the horizontal virtues of reconciliation, tolerance, justice, sincerity, courtesy, modesty, compassion, helpfulness, service and understanding to one another. And such parents would of course be able to also fully express vertical virtue to their children. This would result in harmonious relationships between the Origin and all a family's members, and it would allow the Origin, and the father, mother and children to experience fulfillment through unity together.

3. Universal Harmony
Universal harmony refers to man's unity with the creation centered upon Shimjung. The mental attitude of man as he relates to the people and things over which he has authority (dominion) should be one of original "subject-consciousness". Then, in the subject position, as an artist who manages materials or as a leader who manages people, his behaviour would be guided by all the moral and ethical norms previously mentioned. This would result in harmonious relationships between man and his environment which would allow the Origin, man and the creation to experience fulfillment through unity together.
These are the three Standards of Harmony which form the foundation for education in Wonhwa Do. The identification of these standards is unique to Wonhwa Do philosophy, and they enable it to establish a clear direction and a systematic approach for the educational process. They also in effect integrate elements of the eastern DO and of the western approach to education. This point will be explained through a discussion of the "Forms" of education.

B. The Forms of Education
In order to help every student fulfill each of the three essential Standards of Education, Wonhwa Do philosophy identifies three corresponding "Forms" of education. As the accompanying chart illustrates, the form of education which corresponds to the first standard of "Individual Harmony" is the education of "Shimjung"; the form of education which corresponds to the second standard of "Conjugal Harmony" is the education of "Norm" (or "standards of conduct"); and the form of education which corresponds to the third standard of "Universal Harmony" is the education of "Dominion" (or "creativity"). We will now survey these three forms of education.

1. Shimjung Education
a) Basic Importance
The term "Shimjung" is an approximate reference to Original Heart and love. Thus, Shimjung can be best understood to mean the Heart/love of "original man", or especially the Heart/love of the Original Being whom ideal man is man is centred on. The education of Shimjung facilitates the perfection of personality which is synonymous with the achievement of "Individual Harmony".

B.Forms of Education

Individual Harmony
Education of Shimjung
Conjugal Harmony
Education of Norm
Universal Harmony
Education of Dominion


This is due to the fact that Shimjung is the most essential part of the human spirit. As such, it is what finally determines the way all of us behave. As we had explained in the Wonhwa Do view of original human nature, Shimjung is the first and most basic aspect of man's "original character", (the other two beign Logos and Creativity). And also, through we posses the mental functions of intellect, emotion and will within out spirit, Shimjung is the root of them all.
Thus, it is Shimjung which finally determines the behaviour of an "Original man". Guided by Shimjung, such an individual would possess "Original consciousness"; he would embody the moral virtues of a perfected individual, and also relate to others with an Original, centred attitude. The basic attitude which is most representative of this kind of Shimjung is the parental virtue of benevolence.