Chapter Four: The Wonhwa Do View of Ethics

Following a study of the Principle of Harmony in nature and then its application to the individual human being, it is now appropriate to extend our focus. This leads to applying the Principle of Harmony towards the ordering of society. In philosophy, this area of study is called "ethics". It is a field of great importance, for the establishment of social harmony is necessary for there to be peace and advancement in the world. That is why the promotion of a new ethics is of major concern to Wonhwa Do.
In this study, we will look at two facets of ethics. The first deals with the ethics in an ideal society and the second deals with the specialized ethics peculiar to the martial arts.

I. Traditional Ethics
A. Ethical Ideals
In most traditional Oriental views, especially Chinese Confucianism, Korean Chondogyoism and Japanese Shintoism, there is a stress on a carefully ordered society. It is a "vertically" oriented concept, with the sovereign at the top, the statesmen, military and teachers following, and the citizenry who compose the bulk of society at the base. Members of each sector had privileges, functions and duties appropriate to their positions, and were to serve those above and beneath them. The origin of such an ordered society in Asia is Confucian thought. A characteristic description of order was given by Hsun Tzu, a disciple of Confucius:

"Men cannot live without society. When there is no division (of social order), there is contention. When there is contention, there is disorder. When there is disorder, everything is finished . . . In other words, division is a great benefit for man."

In such a society, each sector has its responsibilities, but the greatest falls upon the leadership: the teachers, statesmen and ultimately, the sovereign. Thus, leaders were required to have a high standard of conduct. Hsun Tzu said: "The sovereign is the source of a stream to the people. When the source is clear, the stream is clear. When the source is foul, the stream is foul." Such a society would be held together by a strong sense of ethics, rather than by brute fear of punishment. Confucius explained:

"If people are guided by laws and all treated as equals in the matter of punishments, they may succeed in doing no wrong, but they will also lose their sense of shame. On the other hand, if they are guided by morality and treated as equals, they will reform themselves through a sense of shame".

In the Judeo-Christian world, ethical views are shaped by two distinct streams of thought: Hellenism and Hebraism. From Hellenism comes the notion of democracy and from Hebraism comes the notion of divine sovereignty. Thus, the standards of conduct in the Occidental world are based respectively upon the philosophical views of humanism and theism. On the one hand, people can voice opinions and arrive at agreements with one another, and on the other hand, these opinions and agreements are subject to divine authority.

B. Martial Ethics
Martial ethics involves the adaptation of normal standards of conduct to conflict situations. For example, in medieval Europe, a certain code of behaviour for knights was formulated. The necessity for armoured warriors was created by the feudal conflicts in society, but some deeper thinkers apparently felt the necessity to impose moral restraints on the power of the knights by the development of a code of honour based upon Christian ideas. This code of honour was called "chivalry".
The most valorous attitude in chivalry was to use one's fighting skills for the interests of the Lord. Such interests included protection of the innocent, the slaying of predatory beasts and generally using one's might to defend the defenceless against evil. One medieval legend which captures the essence of this idea involved a search for the "holy grail" which Jesus drank from at the Last Supper. Such a legend places the fighting arts completely at the service of a "heavenly" purpose.
In the Orient, Shaolin Buddhism required loyalty, respect, purity, unselfishness and mercy of its kempo practitioners. And later on, the most formalized codes of military behaviour emerged in the Hwarangdo of Korea (about 600-1000 AD) and in bushido, the code for Japanese samurai (about 1000-1700 AD). In these codes, there was a great stress on realization of Confucian and Buddhism ideals at the extreme outer edge between life and death. These codes required uncommon loyalty, fierceness, selflessness, courage and determination as well as modesty, fairness, purity, erudition and gentlemanliness.
Followers of these codes were to be beyond selfish desires for fame or notoriety. They had to refuse to fight unworthy opponents, and on the other hand fight a worthy opponent to the death to spare him the shame of having to live in dishonour. Samurai warriors were said to announce their family name and battlefield conquests before fighting. In that way, they could be assured of finding a worthy rival, for to fight and kill an unworthy opponent was dishonourable.
On the other hand, these warriors were encouraged to be men of culture and learning. They studied classical literature, poetry and music, and some became masters of the decorative arts such as watercolour painting and calligraphy. One of the results of such achievement was the cultivation of a deep pride and love of one's civilization. This would result in a fierce determination to defend the civilization if it would be endangered in any way by foreign invasion.

II. Wonhwa Do Ethics
A. Original Ethics
In Wonhwa Do, The Principle of Harmony determines the standards of conduct ("norms") which guide human relationships, especially love relationships.
The forces in the universe do not need such guidance: they are already guided by the Law of Give and Take Action. Man too exists according to this cosmic law, but he is largely in ignorance of it. Thus, he has the tendency to unconsciously violate it, especially in regards to human relationships and the proper expression of love.
In order to clarify the nature of original ethics, we will discuss 1) the ethics of attendance, 2) the centre of ethics; 3) order and position in ethics, and 4) ethical norms and virtues.

1. The Ethics of "Attendance"
To set up proper norms, Wonhwa Do promotes an ethics of "attendance". This attendance is an internal attitude of relating to the Origin with a heart of loyalty and filiality. It is akin to the attitude of a devoted student as he tries to please his master through whatever he does. Such a student seeks to give honour, pride, enjoyment and inspiration to his instructor. (Naturally, one way to do this is to relate to others ethically.) This is attendance. Through this attitude, the object-consciousness of original human nature is manifested.
The ceremonial aspects of Wonhwa Do are gestures of attendance: from the first bow upon entering the dojang to the last one upon leaving it, there are many bows, there are moments of meditation, there is the recitation of tenets, and there is obedience to even the most challenging commands of the instructor. All these practices help inculcate an attitude of proper attendance.

2. The centre of Ethics: Shimjung
Attendance is not a matter of being simply disciplined and dutiful towards one's elders or instructors. It is a matter of Shimjung.
Shimjung is the deepest part of our character. It is deeper than the intellect, deeper than the emotion and deeper than the will. What Shimjung desires is what will govern our every thought, word and action. If Shimjung is satisfied, one can find happiness. However, if Shimjung is unfulfilled, no matter how much one may possess, there is no happiness.
Man experiences this because he inherits this characteristic. It comes from the Origin and allows him to understand and establish relationships of Shimjung. In a society of original ethics, the eldest would attend the Origin; the next eldest would attend them; the younger ones would attend their elders; and the youngest would attend them. In all cases, it is the Shimjung of the elders and ultimately of the Origin which is being cared for.
Also, by taking the Shimjung of the Origin to heart, one takes responsibility for the people and things which concern them. Thus, an attitude of attendance benefits juniors too, by promoting original "subject-consciousness" in the elders. The consciousness of a true subject is characterised by "benevolence". In these ways, Shimjung is at the core of all ethical relationships.

3. Order and Position in Ethics
Ethics is also dependent upon order and position. To explain this more clearly, we must refer back to the earlier discussion of order in the Principle of Harmony. Order is one of the natures of the cosmic law of Give and Take Action and it applies to ethical relationships in a particularly significant way.
The diagram will serve as a reminder that there are four ordered positions (centre, subject, object and union) in the Law of Coaction. When this is projected into humanity, the central position is taken by the Origin, the subject and object positions are taken by two related people and the final position is taken by their union with each other.

A. Original Ethics

3. Order & Position

1 Origin

2 3 Person Person

4 Union

In a harmonized family, which best represents the correlativity of cosmic law, the central position is taken by the grandparents (symbolising the Origin); the subject position is taken by the husband; the object position is taken by the wife; and the final position is taken by the children.
It is important to emphasise that each person in a family actually depends upon order and position to experience fulfilment in love. The reason for this is that there are different types of love which people need to experience. The types are distinguishable when order exists, but obscured when it is lost.
To start with, there are three basic types of love: parental love, conjugal love and filial (child's) love. By saying that they are made distinct through order and position, we mean that each type of love can only be expressed when each person understands his position in the family and acts responsibly to fulfill it. For instance, if the grandparents fulfill their positions, the children and grandchildren will feel parental love. And if the husband and wife fulfill their positions, they will feel conjugal love. And if the children fulfill their positions, the parents and grandparents will feel filial love. People depend upon the experience of these three loves to achieve complete happiness.
The three basic types of love could of course be further broken down into father's, mother's, brother's and sister's love, etc. But the main point is that there is a difference in the character and expression of these loves.
Another way of looking at the matter of order and position is to regard the consequences of disorder when these positions are abandoned and the responsibilities accompanying them are renounced. In this case, when grandparents, husbands, wives and children disregard their positions and responsibilities, the family's order is destroyed and chaos emerges. Betrayals, resentments, abuses and even perversities are the result of the destruction of a family's ethical order.

4. Norms and Virtues in Ethics

There are characteristic norms (standards of conduct) and virtues associated with ethical behaviour. Knowing them can help us fulfill our positions with greater awareness. It also provides guidelines for the appropriate expression of love, which is called "propriety". For instance, the specific expressions of parental, conjugal and filial love are different from one another. It is appropriate to address grandparents more deferentially than one's siblings or one's children. In some cultures, language and gestures towards elders, peers and juniors are clearly distinguished from each other. Thus, titles of respect are affixed to an elder's name, whereas infants' names are abbreviated into nicknames. Also, more formal terms of address are used towards elders, whereas more casual terms are used towards peers. Such customs, manners and traditions help promote an ethically ordered family and society.
The Principle of Harmony distinguishes three kinds of order in the cosmos, and when it is projected into human society, it delineates three kinds of order with distinct accompanying norms and virtues.

a) Vertical Order and Norms
The Principle of Harmony gives a vertical order to the family just as it does to the cosmos. As the diagram indicates, elders in the family occupy positions corresponding to higher centres in the universe. Thus, great-grandparents are like the centre of a galaxy; parents are like suns; children are like planets; and grandchildren are like moons. This order of vertical relationship requires two kinds of expressions of love: a "downward" expression by elders, and an "upward" expression by juniors.
The "downward" expression of vertical love would be seen in virtues such as benevolence, dignity, authority, clemency and respect. This type of behaviour allows a parental expression of Shimjung, and reinforces the proper kind of subject-consciousness for them.
Accompanying parental love are usually specific manners, customs and traditions. For example, sitting at the head of the table, leading discussions, protective or disciplinary gestures, etc. are some of these.
On the other hand, the "upward expression of vertical love would be seen in virtues such as filial piety, loyalty, obedience and respect. This kind of behaviour allows a child's expression of Shimjung and reinforces the proper kind of object-consciousness for them.
The manners, customs and traditions associated with loyalty and filial piety always reflect this object-consciousness. For example, a loyal heart would express itself in words and gestures off attentiveness, deference and trust. To appreciate this, one only needs to imagine oneself as an instructor: if your words are received attentively and obediently, you will experience the object-consciousness of your students. And if there is Shimjung underlying this behaviour, you will feel their vertical heart being directed towards you. This is actually what loyal students give to benevolent masters.
It is important to mention that these virtues are often admired because they are viewed as difficult duties to fulfill. In fact, this reflects an incorrect understanding of the nature of virtue. According to the Principle of Harmony, virtue is the natural expression of Shimjung. For example, if a child deeply loves its parents, its behaviour will incline towards filial piety even without its being fully conscious of it. Or, if a person deeply loves his country or his leader, his Shimjung will naturally express itself through loyal conduct. In that case these virtues are not mere duties, but rather are sources of joy in vertical relationships. That is because virtue is originally expressive of Shimjung.
In Wonhwa Do, the instructor is in the highest position, the elder students are in the middle position, and the younger students are in the lower position. In this framework, their ethical behaviour towards each other should reflect the heart, duty and responsibility of these positions and it should be expressed through appropriate vertical manners, customs and traditions. Thus, students bow towards the front of the dojang. This represents vertical Shimjung to Heaven and also to their instructors.

b) Horizontal Order and Norms
The Principle of Harmony determines a horizontal order in the family just as it does in the cosmos. As the diagram indicates, brothers and sisters in the family correspond to the planets in the solar system. These represent the horizontal relationships in the family.
Horizontal Shimjung among peers is appropriately expressed through virtues such as reconciliation, tolerance, justice, sincerity, courtesy, modesty, compassion, helpfulness, understanding and service.
These virtues are outwardly expressed through corresponding manners, customs and traditions. For example, in Wonhwa Do, students with similar rank are in the position of brothers and sisters. Thus, their ethical behaviour towards each other should reflect the heart, duty and responsibility of siblings. For this reason, they will often bow to one another, assist one another and challenge one another to help each other grow.
One Wonhwa Do student was supremely virtuous towards his peers. He was a clever fighter and a good technician. But what made him outstanding was the attitude of Shimjung he had towards sparring partners: he fought hard with the motivation of bringing out the best in his opponents as well as in himself, thus leaving them with the feeling that they had somehow been served.
This kind of horizontal love can be learned in the dojang, but it must then go outward from there. Thus, Wonhwa do students should become virtuous people not only to fellow practitioners, but to siblings, classmates, friends and co-workers.
c) Individual Order and Norms
The final kind of order which the Principle of Harmony defines is individual order. Therefore, just as a planet must maintain itself through rotation on its own axis, each individual in the family must maintain their own internal harmony.
This is maintained through individual standards of conduct called morals. In the Principle of Harmony, there is a useful distinction made between morality and ethics. The former refers to norms for an individual and the latter refers to norms for a family. In other words, morality refers to personal behaviour whereas ethics refers to interpersonal behaviour. But they go hand in hand: one would expect a moral person to treat others ethically and an ethical person to have good personal morals.
Some virtues which are characteristic of morality are purity, honesty, righteousness, temperance, courage, wisdom, self-control, endurance, self-reliance, self-help, independence, dignity, diligence, innocence, and integrity. The person who achieves such virtues within himself would naturally be able to relate to others in an ethical manner. His personal sense of morality would allow him to be a loyal object, a filial child, a faithful spouse and a benevolent parent.
Being a moral person is in fact the key to ethical relationship. If a parent has moral virtue, he is worthy of filial piety; if a leader has moral virtue, he is worthy of the loyalty of his followers; if a spouse has moral virtue, he is worthy of the fidelity of his partner; if a person has moral virtue, he is worthy of the respect of his peers. Thus, if we wish to be treated ethically; that is, if we wish others to treat us with respect and regard, it is necessary for us to be moral people who are worthy of such treatment. Thus, in Wonhwa Do we strive to be people who are moral and virtuous.

5. The Scope of Ethics
Though we have discussed these ethical and moral norms in the context of the family, they are not limited to the family alone. In fact, since the human race is actually a global family with the same Origin, the vertical and horizontal norms of the family should be projected into all social situations. They should go outward to the society, the nation and the world. Even business and government ethics are based upon family ethics since they are but special, extended variations of the family structure.
For instance, the president or prime minister of a nation is in the parental position. His officers would be in the elders' position and the citizens would be in the younger position. Administration should then be conducted with a heart of parental benevolence, care and authority. If the leaders and officers were ethical and moral people, they could gain the loyalty of the citizenry. The citizens would of course be expected to be virtuous and moral themselves.
In the case of business, the president of a company is in the position of a parent. The senior officers are in the position of elders and the employees are in the position of the younger ones. As in a family, the president should be motivated to earn profit not primarily for his own benefit, but in order to be able to provide for his employees, with the heart and concern of a parent.
This kind of viewpoint exemplifies both object-consciousness and subject-consciousness. According to the former, the leader stands objective to the Origin, making him responsive and accountable. And according to the latter, he can be a benevolent subject to the people he leads and whose welfare he is responsible for.
In the dojang, the student can begin experiencing such ethical relationships through receiving instruction from his teacher, and then later through giving instruction himself. Through these experiences, he matures as he begins to realize that a true leader must invest himself in his followers and raise them up, just as a parent invests in his children.

6. Ethics and Equality
The notion of equality is a central point in the democratic ideal. Through the Principle of Harmony, the nature of equality can be understood more deeply.
Strictly speaking, absolute equality would be possible if there were only horizontal order in the cosmos. In that case, all being would be peers: there would be no elders and juniors; no leaders and followers; no teachers and students; and no parents and children. All would horizontally equal in position.
But obviously, this is not the case and this is because there is a vertical order in the universe. Parents are not equals to their children; elders are not equals to infants; leaders are not equal to their followers; teachers are not equal to students, etc. There is a difference in age, maturity, understanding, experience, responsibility and most of all in heart.
The accompanying diagram illustrates that heart and understanding do change; they develop as people mature and gain more practice and experience. That being the case, we naturally give more freedom and responsibility to those who are more mature and less freedom and responsibility to those who are less mature. That is the reason we give more responsibility to a father than to his infant son.

A. Original Ethics

6. Order & Equality

Change grandparent

And we would give more freedom to a sixty year old master than to a sixteen year old novice. These examples illustrate that there should be definite natural differences between people of different ages and experiences and that this is a natural and logical situation. Thus, strictly speaking, since experience and responsibility between old and young are not exactly equivalent, the notion of exact equality is also incorrect.
This is not to deny the notion of equality entirely, for there is equality, though there is a higher basis for it than egalitarian political notions. That higher basis is the fact that humans were created by the same Origin and as the objects of Shimjung. They are each endowed with unique individuality, and thus valued and loved by the Origin. In this way, people would be equal: as different children in one original family.
That is why Wonhwa Do stresses that each student should become the best he can become. Each practitioner is different from another, and he has different gifts and weaknesses. It is the instructor's responsibility to discover these, reveal them to the student, and direct the student to develop or correct the situation as is necessary.
That is the reason why an instructor may ignore a gifted technician: he may be trying to teach him perseverance and humility. On the other hand, he many handle an inconfident student with warmth in order to teach himself self-respect and pride. In short, the instructor will treat the students with equal heart, although the differences - or inequalities - between the students will become plainly evident to him.
His challenge will be to instruct the entire class, investing effort in each of the students, regardless of apparent athletic ability so that each can grow his character as much as he can and at the rate he can sustain. For this is the heart the Origin has for people: they are all to achieve their own individual perfection, and the instructor must understand this concern and be willing to commit himself to guiding the students toward that end.

B. Social Disharmony
Now, after discussing the original ethics of the Principle of Harmony, we will touch upon social disharmony, for without it, there would be no need for martial ethics to appear.
Social disharmony can be ascribed to numerous causes, but in Wonhwa Do philosophy, it is explained as the projection into society of the fallen nature of individuals. In the presentation of "original human nature", we explained that fallen nature exhibits distinct tendencies: the inability to perceive from an Original, centered viewpoint, abandonment of position (and responsibility), selfish domination of others, and the encouragement of selfish behaviour in general. When these fallen natures are projected into social relationships, the result is an expansion of disharmony from the individual level to the social level.
For example, regarding the first aspect of fallen nature, when people project their inability to perceive reality in an Original, centered manner into society, the way they view other people and things tends towards self-centredness. Then other people become valuable primarily because of what they can provide to gratify one's egocentricity. Relationships then become disposable and valuable merely for the convenience of the self-centered person.
In the case of the second aspect of fallen nature, when a person renounces his proper position and responsibilities in society, this shows a loss of the proper consciousness of his position: original man is firstly in the object position to the Origin and secondly in the subject position to others.
And regarding the third aspect of fallen nature, once consciousness of position is lost, then social relationships are automatically thrown into disorder. Instead of fulfilling the responsibilities of their positions, people become irresponsible and abusive of one another. Parents, children, employees, managers, teachers, students, etc. can all become domineering, causing confusion and unhappiness in society.
Finally, as a result of all this, the entire society will be adversely affected. Ethics and morals will decline, and this will be reflected throughout the entire culture itself. Literature, music, films, clothing, etc. will then add momentum to the decay of society.
When these conditions prevail, peoples' abuse of one another can take on physical expression resulting in personal or group conflict. In response to this kind of perverted reality, an adjustment of ethics is necessary.

C. The Martial Ethics of Wonhwa Do
"Martial Ethics" delineate the standards of conduct which are appropriate for conflict situations. That is why the behaviour in the dojang is much more severe than normal or ideal behaviour: it indicates the proper norms for defenders in immediate danger from violent assault.
In Wonhwa Do, martial ethics are derived from the four basic points of original ethics according to the Principle of Harmony. These four points of original ethics were: 1) ethics is a matter of "attendance", 2) the centre of ethics is "Shimjung", 3) ethics requires "order", and 4) ethical behaviour is guided by "norms".
Based upon them, the martial ethics of Wonhwa Do contains four related points: 1) the "liberation" of Shimjung, 2) the "levels" of liberation, 3) the Law of Repulsion, and 4) the "restoration" of attendance.

1. The Liberation of Shimjung
The term liberation implies an active response to a situation of restriction, confinement or oppression. That is because these things actually exist as the result of social disharmony. They are caused by the proliferation of fallen nature throughout society.
Due to the character of both the Origin and man as beings of Shimjung, such situations are the source of great frustration and heartache. And that is why a main concern of Wonhwa Do is to liberate Shimjung from this oppression.
This concern conditions the Wonhwa Doist to adjust his behaviour according to what would cause the Origin to feel either greater relief or greater grief. For example, if an altercation can be avoided through an appeal to Shimjung, the Wonhwa Doist should do so. But if the assault of evil on the innocent is merciless, the Wonhwa Doist would have to take strong defensive action for the sake of Shimjung. In fact, the deeper the Shimjung, the more fighting power there would be. This is natural, for the more one loves something, the more fiercely one defends that thing when it is endangered.

2. The Levels of Liberation
There are several levels at which the liberation of Shimjung must occur. This is because there are originally several levels of harmony which would fulfill Shimjung. In ascending order, these levels are: the individual, the family, the clan, the society, the nation, the world and the cosmos. And beyond all of these is the Origin. Thus, there are eight levels of liberation which Wonhwa Do is concerned with, for all of them are thrown into oppression by social disharmony. This idea actually provides the main theme for the Form of Unity (Tongil Eui Hyung), one of the intermediate forms of Wonhwa Do.

3. The Law of Repulsion
The Principle of Harmony reveals that the basic cosmic law is the Law of Give and Take Action (Coaction). But there is an auxiliary law, and this is the Law of Repulsion. It operates between opposing subject elements so that normal subject-object relationships might be resumed.
Ethically speaking, in a conflict situation between two opposing subjects, it is the more fallen subject which must be repulsed by the more original one. This means that at the individual level, the Wonhwa Doist would have to repulse those impulses which would destroy Shimjung. And on a social level, Wonhwa Do would guide groups to repulse similar damaging things. Through this action, they would in effect separate themselves from immoral or unethical behaviour.
Unfortunately, due to the perversity or fallen nature, this does not come easily; it requires self-discipline. This gives the necessary power to apply the Law of Repulsion. Thus, Wonhwa Do requires the cultivation of a strong will. Then, on this basis, the practitioner can discipline his desires, separate himself from immorality and thus effectively repulse that which is oppressive and hurtful to Shimjung.
In the last instance, when the expression of abusive domination becomes an actual physical assault, the Law of Repulsion also becomes physically expressed through the defensive techniques of Wonhwa Do. For instance, in one-step sparring drills, the first movement is one of blocking the incoming attack. That is immediately followed by a counter-attack of one or more techniques, with a take-down as the normal final movement. If that is executed effectively, no attack should follow the first one. And in the case of defence against armed assault, repulsion must be that much more forceful. That is the reason why the techniques must be mastered; without them, the repulsion of an assault would be ineffective.

4. The Restoration of Attendance
a) Six Directions of Relationship
According to the Principle of Harmony, attendance is the basic characteristic of Wonhwa Do ethics. However, when social disharmony prevails, attendance gives way to selfishness. In that case, the six directions of human relationship fall into disorder and unhappiness is the result. The diagram reminds us that the six directions refer to those "above" us, meaning our parents and ancestors; those "below" us, meaning our children and descendants; those "before" us, meaning our leaders and teachers; those "behind" us, meaning siblings and peers; and those to our "left", meaning strangers and opponents.
When these relationships become disordered, the ethics and morals of attendance are lost and with them go the manners, customs and traditions which help maintain the ethical order of Shimjung. People then treat each other rudely and abusively.
Wonhwa Do responds to this by placing emphasis on the manners, customs and traditions which express virtue and Shimjung. Through this insistence on outward expression accompanied by internal education, the development of an ethical heart is safeguarded, even under the daily assault of the fallen world upon the original mind. Thus, the student's awareness of proper relationships, obligations and manners can be preserved and through this, he is enabled to maintain a virtuous lifestyle.

Martial Ethics - Restoration of Order

Martial ethics are seen most clearly under extreme conflict situations such as battle. In it, the directions of relationship are placed under highly abnormal stress which untrained people are unused to. They would have the tendency to put self-preservation before any other concern. Precisely to reverse this, martial ethics are characterized by an emphatic stress on position, unity, authority, obedience and self-sacrifice.
The "forward-backward" direction between leaders and followers is particularly emphasized, since this is the way guidance and direction is normally given to any activity. In a conflict situation, this forms the "chain of command" which is essential for effective defence. Without it, a military unit would be disabled.
The "upward-downward" direction between ancestors and descendants is important also. It provides the defender with an awareness of what he must protect: those who share the hopes of their forefathers for their succeeding generations can fight with fervent commitment.
And the "sideward" direction between peers is likewise important, for it supports the working unity that makes teamwork possible.
Serious Wonhwa Do training develops these relationships because in fact our world is at war, in both an internal and external sense. That is why class sessions often taken the rigid and exhausting tone they do. Through this, not only the body is strengthened, but a vital "esprit de corps" is cultivated.
To teach this, the founder would sometimes take classes outside in wintertime to practice in the snow. Students were to run out of the dojang without shoes or jackets, and continue practice oblivious to the cold. On one occasion, the founder lined the class up in sitting stance and led punching for what became an interminable period. "Shout!" he commanded, but snow, hoarseness and muscle pains gradually caused the punching and shouting to become disunited, not to mention the spirit of the class. Yet the founder shouted even harder, increasing the pressure until some desperate determination came into the group. The shouting and punching gradually built up in focus, strength and unity until the individual students were driven beyond themselves into a new level of group harmony and power. Once the founder perceived that the students had reached that level, he terminated the exercise.

b) Original Consciousness
Secondly, since attendance rests upon Original consciousness, that too must be restored. Original human nature possesses two kinds of consciousness: object-consciousness and then, based upon this, subject-consciousness. Fallen nature however destroys these two, making man irresponsible and domineering in his conduct. The attitude of attendance is then lost.
To offset this, Wonhwa Do stresses the development of the Original consciousness. The student must learn how to maintain this consciousness under both normal and stressful conditions. Especially when fighting, this is difficult to achieve, for under assault, the animal instinct for survival can predominate. But in original consciousness, it is Shimjung which predominates. Thus, the Wonhwa Doist must sublimate instinct to the higher motive, which is that of liberating Shimjung. This would allow him to be an effective combatant without being inhumane. If the practitioner can achieve this Original consciousness under pressure, it would be easier to maintain it under normal life situations.
The effort to restore attendance and Original consciousness is clearly evident in the two affirmations of Chang Jo Eui Hyung - the Form of Creation. The first affirmation - "Je ah joo gwon" - symbolizes object-consciousness in that the performer submits himself to the Origin. The second affirmation - "Chun joo joo gwon" - symbolizes subject-consciousness in that it is a proclamation of man's authority.
This shows that the object-consciousness of a Wonhwa Doist must be directed to the highest subject, the Origin. Thus, his fighting ability also should be used in accordance with higher purposes. And especially when in conflict, the Wonhwa Doist must be able to maintain his subject-consciousness when faced with or assaulted by evil. If these two kinds of Original consciousness are restored, attendance can be preserved, even under stress.

Restoration of Attendance

D. The Tenets of Wonhwa Do
The tenets of Wonhwa Do crystallize both its Original and martial ethics. Through the recitation of these seven pledges, all of the norms and virtues explained in this chapter are summarized. For example, these tenets promote the vertical virtues of benevolence, dignity, loyalty and filial piety. They also represent the horizontal virtues of fidelity, respect and justice. And finally, they represent the moral virtues of perseverance, courage and indomitable spirit.
Through a more careful appreciation of the content of the tenets of Wonhwa Do, we hope that the practitioner will treat their regular recitation with attentiveness, sincerity and devoted commitment. In that case, he would find a valuable support towards becoming the moral and ethical kind of person which the Association and even the world needs.


We now close our study of the ethics of Wonhwa Do. Through it, we hope that the reader can appreciate on one hand the new ethics which Wonhwa Do promotes and also the ideal kind of society which would result from it: a society of Shimjung, Reason/Law (Logos) and Creativity, guided by an ethics of "attendance". And on the other hand, we hope that the martial ethics of Wonhwa Do and the basis for its forcefulness is clarified.