Chapter Three: The Wonhwa Do View of Man (CONTINUED)

II. The Wonhwa Do View of Man

In Wonhwa Do, inner harmony depends upon achieving man's "original human nature". Since this is one of the main goals for practicing Wonhwa Do, we must explain what is meant by the concept of original human nature. In short, it is the kind of nature possessed by an "original man"; one who embodies the Principle of Harmony within himself. Thus, we will discuss original man's nature in reference to the cosmic law. We will discuss his Correlativity, Individuality, Original Character, Position and Standards of Harmony. Finally, we must explain "fallen nature".

A. Correlativity
1. Unity of Mind and Body
Man is a being with the correlative aspects of mind and body. The body has instinctive desires for food, shelter, sex and clothing, and the mind is uniquely interested in the pursuit of values. The main values are truth - which satisfies the intellect, beauty - which satisfies the emotion, and goodness - which satisfies the will. The human mind possesses these three capacities of intellect, emotion and will, and the development of certain fields of study is also directly related to them. As the diagram illustrates, man's development of science is related to intellect; his development of arts is related to emotion; and his development of religion and philosophy is related to will.
As the relationship of internal to external should be a subject-object relationship, in man the mind should be subject over the body. A good deal of the discipline in Wonhwa Do is done for the purpose of establishing harmony based upon mental dominion over the body. This in turn is based upon the mind's harmony with the Origin.
Thus, a first step in achieving proper mind and body unity is to achieve a mind "centered" upon the Origin. This is one main reason for the meditation, tenets, bows and spoken affirmations of Wonhwa Do. As can be seen in the diagram, such a relationship can be expressed through the structure of the Quadruple Base. This is such a basic idea in Wonhwa Do that the first form a student will learn - Sawa Gidae Eui Hyung - is based upon it.

2. Harmony of Man and Woman
The other aspect of correlativity is the harmony of yang and yin. In humanity, this is expressed as the harmony of man and woman. The ultimate expression of this is conjugal harmony, or an ideal marriage.
This does not merely refer to a "horizontal" or romantic relationship between a couple. Conjugal harmony is instead based upon the "vertical" relationship that each of the individuals has established with the Origin. Then, when they engage in a conjugal relationship, they automatically bring their personal centeredness into an interpersonal centered relationship. This would lead to true fulfilment and it is why Wonhwa Do stresses the value of conjugal harmony: it expresses the correlativity of yang and yin in the universe and thus of the Principle of Harmony within it.

B. The Individuality of Man
Besides having correlativity, man is also a being with individuality. This means that each man and woman is a unique individual and unlike others. This is possible because of the way each person's mind and body is modified by the yang and yin attributes. To be more specific, this means that - in the mind - the intellect, emotion and will can be each be given a certain character which is more yang or yin. Thus, a person's character can be more thoughtful and pensive (yin). Also - in the body - all parts of the physique can be varied to be more yang or yin. In this case, one body can be tall and heavy (yang), while another could be short and light (yin).
In reality, because every single part of a person's mind and body can be modified through yang and yin, the degree of variation possible between people is infinite; this ultimately stems from the infinitely creative imagination of the Origin. That is the reason why there is distinctness between the personalities and physiques of individuals: people are endowed with their own unique individuality.
Finally, each person is also a unique object of Shimjung for the Origin. For these reasons, Wonhwa Do is concerned with the appreciation and development of the individuality of each student.

C. The Original Character of Man
Of all created beings, man was uniquely conceived of as a being with original character. This is the main thing which distinguishes man form other creatures. It called "original" character because it is patterned after the Divine Character of the Origin. This was done in order that man would be the highest object of Shimjung. Similar to that Divine Character, the original character of man is composed of Shimjung, Logos and Creativity.

1. Man is a being of Shimjung

Shimjung is the first and most essential aspect of man's original character. As we had explained in the Principal of Harmony, original man is a being of Shimjung (Original Heart; that is, one united with the Origin's own). To repeat, this refers to his inner impulse to experience enjoyment through relationship. It is an irrepressible impulse and thus the most powerful determinant of all behaviour: what Shimjung desires determines what the mind will think, the emotion will feel and the will will pursue.
Also, since Shimjung is the root of intellect, emotion and will it can express itself through all of them. Thus, when love flows outward from Shimjung, it may be shaded with an intellectual, emotional or wilful colouring. For example, Shimjung may be expressed intellectually by imparting knowledge to enlighten. It may be expressed emotionally through words of endearment. And it may be expressed through will, as when discipline is administered.
In Wonhwa Do instruction all these ways are employed by the instructor as he invests his heart in his students. He will alternately give intellectual explanations of techniques at one moment, then emotional encouragement at another or strong-willed commands at yet another moment. In all these situations throughout a class, a good instructor is simply directing the expression of heart through different channels.
2. Man is a being of Logos
Logos is the second main aspect of man's original character. As we had explained in Chapter Two, it refers to the reason and law within the mind.
Reason is the highest stage of intellect, the two lower stages being perception and understanding. To clarify the difference between the three, we can say that "perception" is the act of the sensory organs in perceiving a sensation, whether it be sound, image, taste, smell or touch. After a sensation is perceived, it is identified by the intellect and this constitutes "understanding". Reason is the highest act of the intellect because it then takes the understandings (or individual ideas) and uses them to analyse and create new ideas.
Law is the other component of Logos. It is inherent within man's original mind and accounts for the sense of both natural and moral law, which guides and restrains our conduct.
As the diagram illustrates, Logos is formed - centred upon Shimjung - by the Give and Take Action of reason and law within the mind. This characteristic is what makes an original mind value behaviour and relationships which are both reasonable and lawful. Thus, man is meant to conduct himself responsibly, governed by reason and law throughout all his life: during childhood and education, during marriage and employment, and in society. However, it is most important that these relationships do not become mere "legalities", because the centre of Logos in original man is Shimjung. This actually means that every single thought of a man with original character would be motivated by Shimjung.

3. Man is a being of Creativity
This is the third basic aspect of man's original character. It endows man with the ability to create new things. Specifically, it is the activity resulting from the Give and Take Action within mind and body, impelled by Shimjung.
For example, the creation of a form in Wonhwa Do is initiated by a Purpose (which Shimjung generates). Then, within the mind, reason acts with law to form Logos and a "logical" plan of movement and technique is visualised in the mind. Then, when the mind guides the body to move and execute these techniques in actuality, the form is substantially created.
Looking at it this way, it should be evident that original creativity is not an accidental or random process. Rather, it should be guided by Logos and most of all, by Shimjung.

Chapter 3: The Won Hwa Do View of Man...Continued (3)